Dr. Abdul Basyith
The number of people tested positive for Covid-19 around the globe rises significantly in the past few months and Indonesia is one of the countries in South East Asia cannot escape from this pandemic.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) as per April 28, 2020, there are 2,954,222 confirmed cases globally in which 202,597 deaths. It can be concluded that the number of death rate from this outbreak is 6.86 per cent as per April 28, 2020.
The highest number of confirmed cases is in the European region, the region of the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean region, the Western Pacific region, the South East Asian region, and the African region.
Figure 1. Total Confirmed Cases of Covid-19
Figure 2. Total deaths of Covid-19
Figure 3. Total Recovery of Covid-19
Every country has utilised any efforts to flatten the curve. Any measures have been taken by some countries by producing more ventilators, mask, diagnostic testing and any other personal protective equipment.
WHO has provided any supports around the globe by securing supplies needed for the COVID-19 response in countries with limited means to access markets for personal protective equipment, diagnostic testing supplies and clinical care equipment. Furthermore, WHO is also providing technical support such as (1) assisted to design and install COVID-19 treatment centres, and (2) provided technical guidance for a proposed self-quarantine facility.
WHO aims to minimise (1) human-to-human transmission including reducing secondary infections among close contacts, and health care workers, preventing transmission amplification events, and preventing further international spread, (2) social and economic impact through multisectoral partnerships.
Some countries have started to study the anti-virus of Covid-19 and attempted to use existing medicines from a similar virus such as SARS, Malaria and others. Thus far no clear evidence of the efficacy from the existing medicines used.
In Indonesia as per April 28, 2020, the number of confirmed cases is 9,511which is 773 deaths (Source: covid19.go.id). Indonesia is ranked second amongst the South East Asian region having confirmed cases and deaths from Covid-19, and the transmission occurred is categorised as a community transmission (WHO, 2020). In South Sumatera Province, there are 143 confirmed cases and 4 deaths of the confirmed cases (Source: corona.sumselprov.go.id). Meanwhile, some regions the world has shown the flatten-curve, Indonesia is still showing an increasing number of confirmed cases and have affected many aspects of life. Thus, this study attempts to study the awareness of Covid-19 Pandemic in the South Sumatera Province and Indonesia.
This online survey is conducted in the third week of April 2020 for a week by Research & Training Institute-Jeramba Ilmu Sukses. The collected respondents are 412 respondents which varied in terms of gender, education, age and occupation. Five closed-ended questions are provided in this survey concerning the awareness of Covid-19 Pandemic in the South Sumatera Province and Indonesia and the questions are (1) are you aware that COVID-19 is dangerous? (2) are you following the updated news of COVID-19? (3) from what sources do you acquire the COVID-19 news? (4) if you leave the house, do you always wear a mask? And (5) when you are outside the house, do the local people apply social distancing?
According to the survey, the gender of the respondents is 50.97% is female and 49.03% is male.
Figure 4. Gender of Respondents
The occupation of the respondents varied from housewife (74), private employees (68), entrepreneurs (58), government civil servant (53), lecturers (42), teachers (23), university’s students (23), high-school students (14), unemployed (22), and others (25).
Figure 5. Occupation of Respondents
The education level of the respondents varied from postgraduate (59), undergraduate (111), diploma (15), high school graduate (161), junior school graduate (15), elementary school graduate (32), and unanswered (19).
Figure 6. Education Level of Respondents
Figure 7 depicted the variation of education level and gender of respondents. For the high school education level, female respondents are greater than male respondents. Meanwhile for the education level of bachelor, master and doctorate degree, male respondents are greater compared to female respondents.
Figure 7. Gender Characteristics of Respondents
The survey results reveal that (1) the majority of the community is aware of the danger of Covid-19 (96.12%), (2) the majority of the community follows the updated news of Covid-19 (94.90%), (3) the platform media used to acquire the Covid-19 news are online news (37.62%), social media (29.37%), Whatsapp group (2.18%) and other platforms (30.83%), (4) the majority of the community always wears a mask when leaving their house (95.63%), and (5) the number of people applying a social distancing is only more than a half (68.20%).
From the survey result of danger awareness of Covid-19 in Figure 8, it can be seen from the figure below that few respondents who have high school (four respondents) and a postgraduate (one doctorate degree respondent) stated that Covid-19 is not dangerous. Furthermore, it can be seen from Figure 9, there are few housewives, entrepreneurs, university’s students and unemployed do not wear a mask when leaving the house.
From Figure 15, it is moreover difficult for most entrepreneurs, private employees, housewives and government civil servant in applying social distancing as they have to serve others. For housewives, it can be understood that most housewives do the household chores by them, including the groceries shopping. In Indonesia, as there is a vast discrepancy of income level, thus housewives in the lower-income level tend to buy their daily needs in the traditional markets. It makes social distancing seem to be challenging to apply. From Figure 14, 15 and 16, most of the people who are not applying social distancing are high school graduate and undergraduate. Thus we can relate that most entrepreneurs are from small business enterprises sector, and most of them have high school graduate and undergraduate and so do private employees.
Danger awareness of the Covid-19
Figure 8. The respondents’ response of danger awareness of Covid-19
Figure 9. The respondents response of danger awareness of Covid-19 in terms of education level
Updated news of Covid-19
Figure 10. The respondents’ response of updated news of Covid-19
Source of Covid-19 news
Figure 11. The respondents’ response of the source of Covid-19 news
Figure 12. The respondents’ response of the mask use during Covid-19
Figure 13. The respondents’ response of the mask use during Covid-19 in terms of occupation characteristics
Figure 14. The respondents’ response of the social distancing during Covid-19
Figure 15. The respondents’ response of the social distancing during Covid-19 in terms of occupation characteristics
Figure 16. The respondents’ response of the social distancing during Covid-19 in terms of education level characteristics
The finding on the number of people applying a social distancing in Indonesia supports the means of transmission of Covid-19 in Indonesia that is a community transmission identified by WHO. This means that though the community is absolutely aware of the hazards of Covid-19, yet the community is not ready to apply a social distancing. Moreover, the policy concerning Covid-19 taken by the Indonesian government is to only apply a large-scale social distancing in a region that is identified as a red zone only. The indisciplined of the community in implementing social distancing is caused by the discrepancy of economics status in which some people are in the level of wealth, and some people are in the level of poverty. Some say they are even more afraid of hunger compared to the death caused by Covid-19. Though various measures have been taken by the government by providing some economic assistance, yet various problems also arises such an uneven distribution and others.